Researchers start gathering data and creating ways to. Though it is difficult to maintain validity in qualitative research but there are some alternate ways in which the quality of the qualitative research can be enhanced. This contrasts with any possibly mind-independent objects, the existence of which purportedly does not depend on the existence of a conscious observing subject. Likewise, The distinction between constructs and concepts are clearer in multi-dimensional constructs, where the higher order abstraction is called a construct and the lower order abstractions are called concepts. Thinking like a researcher implies the ability to move back and forth between these two planes. All sciences are built on systems of constructs and their interrelations. Whether IQ scores truly measures one’s intelligence is anyone’s guess (though many believe that they do), and depending on whether how well it measures intelligence, the IQ score may be a good or a poor measure of the intelligence construct. Researchers generate concepts by generalizing from particular facts. To get an accurate measure of the first variable—respondents' ratings of the taste of the three pizza brands—the researcher will hold the second and third variables constant. By serving all three pizzas on the same kind of plates with the table dressed in the same manner, preparing the pizzas in identical ways, and serving them at identical temperatures, the research controls for these variables. Brand loyalty is a construct that marketing researchers study often. "Weight" is a concept: it expresses numerous observations of things … Watch the recordings here on Youtube! As such, theoretical claims made about, say, integrity as a construct differ from claims about integrity as … First, it may be defined in terms of other words or concepts. A construct is an image or abstract idea specifi cally invented for a given research and/or theory-building purpose. Concept Explication [Part 1] Posted on August 15, 2012 by Gavin Davie. Define dimensions in terms of social scientific measurement. measure based what they encounter. Concepts are knitted together into a coherent system to describe or explain some aspect of the world. For instance, the idea of gravitation borrowed from physics can be used in business to describe why people tend to “gravitate” to their preferred shopping destinations. Research is always based on reliable data and the methods used to capture this data. As abstract entities, constructs are not directly measurable, and hence, we look for proxy measures called variables. Concepts are based on our experiences. Date last modified: April 13, 2015. The Role of Constructs A construct is an abstract idea inferred from specific instances that are thought to be related. The overall network of relationships between a set of related constructs is called a nomological network (see Figure 2.2). Depending on their intended use, variables may be classified as independent, dependent, moderating, mediating, or control variables. One can imagine that constructs such as learning, personality, and intelligence can be quite hard to define operationally. Some concepts such as a person’s weight are precise and objective, while other concepts such as a person’s personality may be more abstract and difficult to visualize. Scientific research requires operational definitions that define constructs in terms of how they will be empirically measured. Three classes of things can be measured direct observables (height, weight, color, etc.) We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Define it as a concpet and/or a construct. One can describe the difference between constructs and concepts in terms of set theory. Have questions or comments? Describe why defining our concepts is important. A Construct's height, weight or depth cannot be measured because constructs are not concrete materials in the visible world. The former instance (weight) is a unidimensional construct, while the latter (communication skill) is a multi-dimensional construct (i.e., it consists of multiple underlying concepts). For instance, a seemingly simple construct such as income may refer to monthly or annual income, before-tax or after-tax income, and personal or family income, and is therefore neither precise nor clear. In this section we’ll take a look at one of the first steps in the measurement process, conceptualization. Constructs used for scientific research must have precise and clear definitions that others can use to understand exactly what it means and what it does not mean. Researchers call variable 2 and 3 control variables. Incidentally, one may also view effort as an independent variable and intelligence as a moderating variable. For instance, technostress is a new concept referring to the mental stress one may face when asked to learn a new technology. In doing so, the researcher has removed, or controlled for the affect of the second and third variables on respondents' taste preferences. A key to research that can be used and repeated is the careful definition of the major concepts in the study. Constructs are considered latent variable because they cannot be directly observable or measured. Researchers generate concepts by generalizing from particular facts. Solution.pdf Next Previous. For instance, a person’s intelligence is often measured as his or her IQ (intelligence quotient) score, which is an index generated from an analytical and pattern-matching test administered to people. We can measure concepts through direct and indirect observations: Constructs: Constructs are measured with multiple variables. structs 1. To understand the differences between these different variable types, consider the example shown in Figure 2.2. Brand loyalty can be measured using a variety of measures: An attribute is a single feature or dimension of a construct. The likelihood of recommending the brand to a friend or family member, The likelihood of switching to a competitive brand. Ex. Concepts can be based on real phenomena and are a generalized idea of something of meaning. The first step in the measurement process is to define the concepts we are studying. While objects such as a person, a firm, or a car are not concepts, their specific characteristics or behavior such as a person’s attitude toward immigrants, a firm’s capacity for innovation, and a car’s weight can be viewed as concepts. This type of research heavily relies on previously conducted studies, no form of experiment is conducted which save time, efforts and resources. As shown in Figure 2.1, scientific research proceeds along two planes: a theoretical plane and an empirical plane. Concept, Construct and Variable By Dr. Anamika Ray Assistant Professor in Mass Communication Gauhati University, Assam, India 2. It’s research based on pen and paper. Examples of concepts include common demographic … A construct is an abstract concept that is specifically chosen (or “created”) to explain a given phenomenon. PDF | On Jun 1, 2012, Edwin A. Locke published Construct validity vs. concept validity | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate If … How to Define Your Concept a.k.a. Learn more. Constructs are broad concepts or topics for a study. A scale provides the rules that associate values on the scale to the concept we are studying. Variables: Variables are measurements that are free to vary. The word ‘concept’ gives a vivid picture on something, which helps to understand the category and diversity of particular related pragmatic phenomenon. Constructs and Variables Introduction • Concepts and Constructs • Variables • Uses • Types “This is really, really hard to grasp. Concepts, Constructs, Variables, and Measurement. [ "article:topic", "variable", "dependent variables", "independent variables", "operational definitions", "license:ccbyncsa", "showtoc:no", "concepts", "construct", "unidimensional construct", "multi-dimensional construct", "mediating variables", "moderating variables", "control variables", "nomological network", "authorname:abhattacherjee" ]. Yet there is an im- portant distinction. Legal. According to Kwan & Wolf (2002), constructs, simply put is a concept or an idea that has added meaning in that it has been creatively, deliberately and consciously invented or adopted for a scientific purpose. In the context of survey research, a construct is the abstract idea, underlying theme, or subject matter that one wishes to measure using survey questions. Conceptualization is the mental process by which fuzzy and imprecise constructs (concepts) and their constituent components are defined in concrete and precise terms. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Concepts may also have progressive levels of abstraction. A concept expresses an abstraction formed by generalization from particulars. A construct is an abstract concept that is specifically chosen (or “created”) to explain a given phenomenon. A construct is a concept but with the added meaning, however, of having been deliberately and consciously invented or adopted for a special scientific purpose. In no event shall the author or copyright holder be liable for any claim, damages, or other liability arising out of or in connection with this website. 2. A concept or construct can be defined in at least two ways. A theory is an explanation of some aspect of reality. ), in contrast to constants that do not vary (i.e., remain constant). Keywords: Theory, Constructs, Concepts, Practice, Research, Neo-institutional, Grounded Theory, Substantive Theory, Worldviews Introduction The importance of theory in research cannot be underestimated. The measurement techniques define what the data will be and are directions for gathering data. Concept, Construct and Variable 1. For example, when people are asked whether they intend to purchase a new product, or whether they approve or disapprove of a particular public policy there is uncertainty about what the responses will be. Some constructs can be very easy to understand/measure (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity, … Two of these ingredients were an independent variable and a dependent variable. Define a theory. 2. Measurement requires a scale. Constructs can be conceptually defined in that they have meaning in theoretical terms. If academic achievement is viewed as an intermediate step to higher earning potential, then earning potential becomes the dependent variable for the independent variable academic achievement, and academic achievement becomes the mediating variable in the relationship between intelligence and earning potential. Constructs exist at a higher level of abstraction than concepts. Concepts and Constructs. Jan 23 2014 03:24 PM. Constructs are the basis of working hypotheses. Constructs vary significantly in their complexity. Concepts are mental representations and are typically based on experience concepts can be of real phenomena (dogs, clouds, pain) concepts can be of agree-upon phenomena (truth, beauty, justice, prejudice, value, etc.) There may be other extraneous variables that are not pertinent to explaining a given dependent variable, but may have some impact on the dependent variable. Variable can be divided into Independent Variables or Dependent Variables. Missed the LibreFest? Concepts are highly subjective in nature and that makes it difficult to use them as they are in a research study. We discussed in Chapter 1 that although research can be exploratory, descriptive, or explanatory, most scientific research tend to be of the explanatory type in that they search for potential explanations of observed natural or social phenomena. Examples of constructs include intelligence or life satisfaction. If someone says bad things about other racial groups, is that racial prejudice? Describe how conceptualization works. These variables must be controlled for in a scientific study, and are therefore called control variables. A construct may be a simple concept, such as a person’s weight, or a combination of a set of related concepts such as a person’s communication skill, which may consist of several underlying concepts such as the person’s vocabulary, syntax, and spelling. Variables that explain other variables are called independent variables, those that are explained by other variables are dependent variables, those that are explained by independent variables while also explaining dependent variables are mediating variables (or intermediate variables), and those that influence the relationship between independent and dependent variables are called moderating variables. In a theory, concepts are knitted together into a coherent system … Concepts and Constructs . Thinking like a researcher requires not only being able to abstract constructs from observations, but also being able to mentally visualize a nomological network linking these abstract constructs. Kumar (2000) says that concepts are mental images and therefore their meanings vary markedly from individual to individual. Users may not alter it. By complexity, we mean the relative difficulty that people have understanding and measuring (i.e., observing) various constructs. Since constructs are very broad and abstract, conceptual clarity has become one of the cornerstones of good research. Etymologically speaking, a variable is a quantity that can vary (e.g., from low to high, negative to positive, etc. Researchers define constructs both “conceptually” and “operationally” Conceptual definition: provides meaning to one construct in abstract or theoretical terms BUT… We have to make our abstract concepts concrete so we can study them! Typical constructs in marketing research include Brand Loyalty, Purchase Intent, and Customer Satisfaction. Construct refers to a slightly more complex abstraction that is deliberately invented. Constructs and Variables DSC 500: Research Methods Simon Kwan and Peter Wolf 02-Oct-02. We can classify the values derived from measurement into two broad categories: 1) Variables and 2) Constants. A construct may be a simple concept, such as a person’s weight , or a combination of a set of related concepts such as a person’s communication skill , which may consist of several underlying concepts such as the person’s vocabulary , syntax , and spelling . Conceptual research mainly focuses on the concept of the research or the theory that explains a phenomenon. This website is provided "as is," without any kind of warranty. Concepts and Constructs The terms "concept" and "construct" have similar meanings. Some of these concepts have been developed over time through our shared language. Such definitions of a circular nature are not particularly useful in scientific research for elaborating the meaning and content of that construct. For instance, we might define permissiveness as the degree to which a teacher employs a relaxed mode of pupil control; that is, permissiveness is defined in terms of relaxedness, another term that we believe brings more clarity to the concept. For more information contact us at or check out our status page at But we should also question past conceptualizations. If we believe that the effect of intelligence on academic achievement also depends on the effort invested by the student in the learning process (i.e., between two equally intelligent students, the student who puts is more effort achieves higher academic achievement than one who puts in less effort), then effort becomes a moderating variable. In statistics and survey research, responses are typically described as random variables. In this case, intelligence is a construct, and IQ score is a variable that measures the intelligence construct. Constants: Constants, on the other hand, do not vary. The terms construct and concept are sometimes used interchangeably, but a construct often refers to a more complex abstraction than a concept. Justice, Beauty, Happiness, and Health are all constructs. Likewise, the concept of distance can be used to explain the degree of social separation between two otherwise collocated individuals. A construct such as income should be defined in terms of whether we are interested in monthly or annual income, before-tax or after-tax income, and personal or family income. Construct refers to any complex psychological concept. An explanation of some aspect of reality. Such abstract concepts are often called constructs. The natural sciences use constructs such as gravity, temperature, phylogenetic dominance, tectonic pressure, and global warming. Figure 2.2. Scientific methods facilitate this process to obtain quality output in research. The value of a random variable varies by chance or in a hit-or-miss or haphazard manner. Measurement: Measurement is the assignment of numbers or symbols to phenomena. In physics, on the other hand, the speed of light in a vacuum—186,000 miles per second—is a constant. The first step in the measurement process is to define the concepts we are studying. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Qualitative researchers also reflect on ideas before data collection, but they develop many, if not most, of their concepts during data collection activities. structs 1. Knowingly or unknowingly, we use different kinds of concepts in our everyday conversations. Sometimes, we borrow concepts from other disciplines or languages to explain a phenomenon of interest. These subjective thoughts cannot be measured on a statistical scale. Is it a concept and/or a construct? To form by assembling or combining parts; build. Now would be an excellent time to pay attention.” (Kwan and Wolf) Constructs and Variables Concepts • Concepts • What is a concept? Business Research (Concept and Construct) Strategy is a common term in businnes. Figure 2.1. A dependent variable changes in response to changes in the independent variable or variables. If you were interested in studying this concept, we’ve learned that it would be good to consult prior theory and research to understand how the term has been conceptualized by others. "Intelligence" is a concept, an abstraction from the observation of presumably intelligent and non-intelligent behaviours. This means the respondents' responses to a survey cannot be predicted with absolute certainty. For instance, the operational definition of a construct such as temperature must specify whether we plan to measure temperature in Celsius, Fahrenheit, or Kelvin scale. A variable can be transformed into a constant when the researcher decides to control the variable by reducing its expression to a single value. To form by assembling or combining parts; build. However, this distinction tends to blur in the case of unidimensional constructs. There are two types of definitions: dictionary definitions and operational definitions. Concepts are based on our experiences. As an example, if we state that higher intelligence causes improved learning among students, then intelligence is an independent variable and learning is a dependent variable. A hazy definition of a concept may enter into relationships with other variables, but since the concept was ill-defined the meaning of those relationships can be no better … Examples of concepts include common demographic measures: Income, Age, Eduction Level, Number of SIblings. The theoretical and empirical planes of research. A scale provides a range of values—a yardstick—that corresponds to the presence of the properties of the concept under investigation. Related Questions. What is the role of a theory in quantitative research? Sometimes, we create our own concepts to describe a unique characteristic not described in prior research. Permission is granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining this website to use it and distribute it. Describe reification. A term frequently associated with, and sometimes used interchangeably with, a construct is a variable. In the more familiar dictionary definition, a construct is often defined in terms of a synonym. Hence, variable are defined as an independent, dependent, moderating, or mediating variable based on their nature of association with each other. For instance, we often use the word “prejudice” and the word conjures a certain image in our mind; however, we may struggle if we were asked to define exactly what the term meant. It does not vary. However, in scientific research, a variable is a measurable representation of an abstract construct. The concept of reliability, generalizability, and validity in qualitative research is often criticized by the proponents of quantitative research. Think, for example, about where we’d be today if we used the same definition of family that was used, say, 100 years ago. They can be abstract and do not necessarily need to be directly observable. Conceptualization In an earlier (digital) handout, I provided you with the basic ingredients necessary to construct a research question. is that concept is an understanding retained in the mind, from experience, reasoning and/or imagination; a generalization (generic, basic form), or abstraction (mental impression), of a particular set of instances or occurrences (specific, though different, recorded manifestations of the concept) while construct is something constructed from parts. Concepts can be based on real phenomena and are a generalized idea of something of meaning. A nomological network of constructs. In philosophy, a construct is an object which is ideal, that is, an object of the mind or of thought, meaning that its existence may be said to depend upon a subject's mind. 2. construct definition: 1. to build something or put together different parts to form something whole: 2. an idea or an…. CONCEPT 3. Copyright © Edward Volchok 2015. What causes the phenomenon, what are its building blocks and so on. toc | return to top | previous page | next page. Explain. Expert's Answer. Examples would be a person's motivation, anger, personality, intelligence, love, attachment, or fear. Constructs are conceptualized at the theoretical (abstract) plane, while variables are operationalized and measured at the empirical (observational) plane. Define concept. Operational definition: defines a construct by specifying the procedures used to measure a construct. Constructs extend over actual cases, whereas concepts extend over both actual and possible cases. self care . Construct, in psychology, a tool used to facilitate understanding of human behaviour. There are a number of variables in this test: 1) Respondents' ratings of the taste of each brand of pizza, 2) The manner in which is each pizza is presented, the type of the plates and table cloths used, and 3) The manner in which each brand is prepared. Explanations require development of concepts or generalizable properties or characteristics associated with objects, events, or people. For instance, attitude may be defined as a disposition, a feeling, or an affect, and affect in turn is defined as an attitude. Suppose a researcher is conducting a test of consumers' taste preference for three brands of frozen pizza. If we believe that intelligence influences (or explains) students’ academic achievement, then a measure of intelligence such as an IQ score is an independent variable, while a measure of academic success such as grade point average is a dependent variable. To create by systematically arranging ideas or... Constructs - definition of constructs by The Free Dictionary.