Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1951. In practice, power rested in the hands of a small landowning minority who controlled the Senate. Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, CONSTRUCTION OF CASES. Access to the highest magistracies was restricted, even to nobles. Fortunately for Rome the tribes moved westward toward Switzerland. At th…, Punic Wars, three distinct conflicts between Carthage and Rome. The praetor peregrinus (alien praetor) dealt with lawsuits involving foreigners. The Gallic War, published on the eve of the civil war which led to the end of the Roman Republic, is an autobiographical account written by one of the most famous figures of European history. Bibliography Appendices A. In the two decades that followed, Pompey used his military successes against Rome’s enemies to persuade the Senate to give him a consulship and further commands. Fearing the approach of winter, Caesar departs for Gaul. Welch, Kathryn, and Anton Powell, eds. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Of the forces that had taken part in the attack—known to number over 30,000—more than a third were killed; the rest fled in terror and were not allowed to halt even on the mountain heights. A. Generally they succeed in throwing the ranks of their opponents into confusion just with the terror caused by their galloping horses and the din of their wheels. Bohn. Trans. In Caesar’s day, senators typically belonged to one of two groups: Optimates These senators followed the traditional senatorial routes to authority and political success, and were often seen as a less democratic and more conservative group. Trans. For they are unadorned, direct and graceful, stripped of every oratorical ornament as though divested of clothing” (Cicero, Brutus, chapter 292). Moving swiftly, Caesar prevents them from crossing the Rhine River. This new translation reflects the purity of Caesar's Latin while preserving the pace and flow of his momentous narrative of the conquest of Gaul and the first Roman invasions of Britain and Germany. More generally, Caesar’s descriptions of the Celtic tribes helped shape later Roman views of the “barbarian,” including those of historians, such as Tacitus, Ammianus Marcellinus, and Orosius. Nonetheless, there are traces of a tradition hostile to the content of Caesar’s Commentaries. ." The Gallic War (58-51 B.C.) The cursus honorum, or “ladder of offices,” was the means by which a Roman official, or magistrate, advanced politically. Caesar’s narrative, written in the third person, lays claim to a more impersonal and objective approach. Nice). Since 1959 Goscinny and Uderzo’s 32 books have been translated into over 100 languages (including ancient Greek and Latin), used as educational materials, and adapted for animation and motion picture (Asterix and Obelix vs. Caesar [1999]; Asterix and Obefix: Mission Cleopatra [2002], starring Christian Clavier as Asterix and Gerard Depardieu as Qbefix). The Commentaries on the Gallic War had a wide-spread impact on later ancient biographers and historians. It was impossible for Caesar to have fully falsified his account since it would have been competing with his own reports to the Senate, with his correspondence and the letters of his officers to Rome, and with other literary compositions by the men under his command. "Commentaries on the Gallic War Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Each successive generation could augment the auctoritas earned by their ancestors and increase their own dignitas through the position, status, and wealth of their family. The events in Caesar’s commentaries unfold in chronological order, always by year and sub-divided by summers and winters, resembling the method characteristic of Roman historiography. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. The Usipetes and the Tencteri cross into Gaul under pressure from the Suebi, who are the largest and most warlike of the German nations. In other arenas his lieutenants quell some unruly tribes, including rebels in the territory of Aquitania (in today’s southwest France). "Commentaries on the Gallic War New York: New Press, 2003. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. He portrays the Gauls as deserving to be subjected because they lack Roman qualities. Instead of a conventional prologue, Caesar begins with a description of Gaul and its inhabitants. Swansea: Duckworth and the Classical Press of Wales, 1998. The presence of Marius’s army veterans in the forum, Rome’s civic and commercial center, effectively silenced any opposition. The books are further subdivided into chapters, or subsections. McDevitte and W.S. They commanded the army, conducted the chief elections, presided over the Senate, and implemented Senate decisions. Many had to sell them to wealthier landowners to avoid bankruptcy. His movement inland is temporarily checked when news arrives that a storm has destroyed 40 ships. in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. Consul The two annually elected chief magistrates of Rome. These are the tactics of chariot warfare. Though an able orator, Caesar understood that true power at Rome was possible only through military success and a supportive army. Setting out for Britain from Ports Etuis (perhaps today’s Bologna), he leads an army of 2,000 cavalry and five legions (approximately 25,000 infantry soldiers). With typical celeritas, or speed, Caesar marches against the German tribes, defeating them in two separate engagements. The praetor urbanus (city praetor) was the supreme civil judge of Rome. Exposing himself to the same risks as his troops, he won their confidence and trust. Asterix’s small village fends off the Roman invaders with a little help from a magic potion prepared by a Druid named Getafix. Further successes against tribes from Gaul prompted the people to re-elect Marius consul every year until 100 bce. The translation is based on W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn (1869). This complete edition of Caesar's Commentaries contains all eight of Caesar's books on the Gallic War as well as all three of his books on the Civil War masterfully translated into English by W. A. MacDevitt. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. A slightly different stance suggests that Caesar wrote the Commentaries in stages but published them all at the same time. Pollio believed that Caesar gave a false account, either purposely or because of a faulty memory (Suetonius, Caesar 56.4). Suddenly a revolt breaks out incited by a member of the Treveri tribe, a Gallic tribe that provided Caesar with cavalry. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Marius had first gained public recognition in 134 bce as a military tribune at Numantia in Spain. It is said that they have a hundred cantons, each of which provides annually a thousand armed men for service in foreign wars. A few years later, when the Senate added Farther Gaul to Nearer Gaul as one of Caesar’s territories, he redirected his attention toward the unruly tribes of Gaul. They capture some Roman officials and demand the return of their own hostages. In addition to the influences of genres, one can detect the impact of Caesar’s teachers, the orator Apollonius Molon of Rhodes, and the grammarian Antonius Gnipho. The former advocated an austere style of oratory. There ensues a battle in which Caesar’s legions rout the army of Ariovistus. Caesar's Commentaries On The Gallic War: From The Commencement Of The Same To The End Of His Second Expedition Into Britain: Accompanied With A Latin ... With English Notes, Explanatory And Critical: Caesar, Julius: Amazon.com.tr Advanced embedding details, examples, and help, Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0, Siege_of_the_stronghold_of_the_Aduatuci.jpg, Octodurus_and_the_surrounding_territory.jpg, The_Veneti_and_neighboring_coast_region.jpg, Terms of Service (last updated 12/31/2014). An additional book by Caesar’s general, Aulus Hirtius (consul 43 bce), relates events of 51 and 50 bce. Such information is important if one is to grasp the large scale of these long-ago battles. All 53,000 Aduatuci are sold into slavery. He is the diplomat, general, warrior. Meier, Christian. In general, commentarii were not for publication, but were intended as raw material for the historian. Veyne, Paul, ed. Just ten days later, a 400-yard Roman-built bridge spans the Rhine. In ancient Rome, history was above all a rhetorical and literary genre. Such military and civic distinctions bestowed auctoritas, an authority that entailed the respectful admiration of one’s contemporaries. For not long after the conquest of Gaul, the unusual antics of the essedarii made them a regular feature m the Roman amphitheater. A. After Caesar’s lieutenant Labienus routs the Treveri, his force and Caesar’s set out once more for Germany. After 18 days of maneuvers and raids, his point made, Caesar withdraws to Gaul. When Aulus Hirtius remarked in his preface to book eight that “Caesar possessed not only the greatest skill and elegance in writing, but also the surest ability to ex-plain his own plans” (Gallic War 8, Preface, section 7; trans. In 56 bce Caesar’s command in Gaul was extended for another five years, but the peace did not last long. They are less developed than the civilized Romans: they make human sacrifices; they treat the common people like slaves; they do not have democracy. Caesar's Commentaries are an outstanding account of extraordinary events by one of the most exceptional men in the history of the world. https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/culture-magazines/commentaries-gallic-war, "Commentaries on the Gallic War Bradley, P. Ancient Rome: Using Evidence. Rather the Commentaries on the Gallic War should be regarded as a key to understanding the sophisticated linguistic, rhetorical, and historical processes of one of ancient Rome’s most dynamic politicians and foremost thinkers. A. To this was soon added Farther Gaul (Transalpine Gaul). Over one-third of the book is then taken up with a lengthy digression on the differences between the societies of Gaul and Those who are left at home have to support the men in the army as well as themselves, and the next year take their turn of service, while the others stay at home. Caesar. 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 17 - 18 - 19 - 20 - 21 - 22 - 23 - 24 - 25 - 26 - 27 - 28 - 29 - 30 - 31 - 32 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 37 - 38 - 39 - 40 - 41 - 42 - 43 - 44 - 45 - 46 - 47 - 48 - 49 - 50 - 51 - 52 - 53 - 54. Commentaries on individual books of the Gallic War are available, and sev- eral new commentaries are appearing on the selections from the Gallic War that were chosen for the Advanced Placement Exam in Latin (introduced in spring 2013), but nothing that presents multiple books in … Publishing a section of Commentaries on the Gallic War annually at the end of a military campaign season would have enabled Caesar to promote himself to the Roman public and to enhance his immediate political ambitions. Caésar’s style in the Commentaries is smooth and concise. The latter. After repulsing the enemy, Galba retires to the Roman province, where he winters amid the Allobroges. _____. The final sections shift the focus to the challenges to Caesar’s authority at Rome. After he fails to relieve the town of Avaricum (today’s Bourges), it falls to Caesar, whose troops have besieged it. ." Other details dealing with the battle itself are equally important. At Rome it must have seemed that the threat posed by the tribes of Gaul would never be averted. Despite their success, the Britons petition for peace and promise to return hostages. The narrative paints Vercingetorix as a suitably intelligent and resourceful opponent to the Roman commander. Anthea Bell and Derek Hockridge. To add insult to injury, in 51 bce, one of the consuls, M. Marcellus, publicly flogged a senator from Novum Comum (a town in Gaul) to demonstrate that the town did not enjoy Roman citizenship. This is clearly the best available audio download of Caesar's Gallic War Commentaries. Cleverly the authors exaggerate themes of Roman and barbarian found in Caesar’s Commentaries, although in their version the barbarians always have the last word. A new army and a new general, L. Cassius Longinus, advanced against the Tigurini. Caesar compares and contrasts the civilized ways of Rome to the barbarism of those he conquers. These officials had aides called lictors, who carried bundles of rods, known as fasces (for flogging) and (when the official was a consul) also carried axes (for executions). Intended to do more than document events, the commentaries are the product of someone who understood the importance of propaganda to increase his power and to achieve his autocratic ambitions. The final word of the incomplete manuscript “contendit…” (He strove …) (Gallic War, 8.55; trans. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. Caesar’s narrative is a masterpiece of rhetorical or persuasive composition. The praetors oversaw the permanent law courts. The memoirs of P. Rutilius Rufus, the autobiography of M. Aemilius Scaurus, or Cicero’s account of his consulship are worthy predecessors to Caesar’s commentaries. Caesar withdraws to settle a dynastic squabble among the Aedui people. Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. In 113 bce they roundly defeated the Roman consul Cnaeus Papirius Carbo at Noricum (in Nearer Gaul). He encourages his Roman audience to believe in his actions and in himself. Commentaries on the Gallic War is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Celtic chieftain Vercingetorix (c. 75 BC-c. 46 BC) battled valiantly to keep the Roman army from overrunning the territory of Gaul, as…, Iceni Queen Boudicca (died 61) ruled over a small tribe of Celts who challenged the colonization plans of the Roman Empire in England. Aulus Hirtius, published in the mid-40s bce. He tried to grant Caesar the special privilege of being eligible to stand for the consulship in absentia so that when he finished his Gallic command he could step directly from one office to the next without a year’s interlude that would have left him open to prosecution. In theory, the governance of the Roman state was shared jointly by the Senate and the people of Rome (senatus populusque Romanus). In honor of his achievements, the Senate grants Caesar 20 days of public thanksgiving. Ancient and modern readers would be hard pressed to find a purer example of historical writing that is tailored to the views and desires of its central figure than Caesar’s Gallic War. The subject matter provided raw material for Livy’s From the Founding of the City, for Plutarch’s Parallel Lives, and for Suetonius’ The Lives of The Twelve Caesars (all also in Classical Literature and Its Times). In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting … Marcus Porcius Cato (234-149 B.C. In the modern world, Caesar’s accomplishments have rarely gripped the popular imagination. In the second part of the book Caesar responds to a request from the tribes of Gaul for aid against In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Germanic peoples and Celtic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. Out of every eight praetors elected each year, only two could become consuls, and every year there were more ex-praetors competing for those top two positions. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. The three allies engineered a consulship for Caesar in 59 bce, during which he oversaw the ratification of Pompey’s eastern settlement and supported the financial interests of Crassus in Egypt and the East. After several years of civil war from which Caesar emerged victorious, in 44 bce he had himself declared dictator in perpetuum (dictator for life), which demonstrated the obvious: the Republican system of government no longer worked. The Veneti Senate is executed by sword, and the remaining adult males are sold as slaves. He offers reasons for campaigning outside his province: the Britons have been helping the tribes of Gaul fight the Ro-mans and Rome will gain knowledge of Britain’s land and peoples. Caesar’s arrival soon after revives morale. Gallic Wars, (58–50 bce), campaigns in which the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar conquered Gaul. Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War Literally Translated Default Title - $8.00 USD Regular price $8.00 Quantity Add to Cart Translated by Edward Brooks, Jr. David McKay, 1895. Digressions on the characteristics of the Gauls and Germans are essential to Caesar’s account. In eighteenth-century France, the value of the Commentaries as a military handbook was not lost on Napoleon Bonaparte, who wanted the work to be part of the education of every general and wrote his own Summary of the Wars of Caesar (Precis des Guerres de Cesar, 1836). Galba shows initiative and the Romans counterattack from the gates of the camp: It was a complete reversal of fortune: the Gauls who had counted on capturing the camp were surrounded and cut off. Highly recommended. Caesar hastens back to the province. In Caesar’s time the ancient region of Gaul (roughly equivalent to France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) was inhabited by disparate nations, or tribal groups. Very enjoyable audio program on Julius Caesar. The Sugambri retire across the Rhine. He had operated outside the limits of his provinces without senatorial authority and, by rights, should have been prosecuted. was the conflict in which Julius Caesar first emerged as a great military leader, after an earlier career as an impoverished populist politician. Book Summary. Roman Political Life 90 BC-AD 69. Twice Caesar had been granted unprecedented periods of public thanksgiving and prayers to the gods. His vivid description of the British charioteers soon gripped the Roman imagination. With the armies settled in winter quarters, Caesar’s lieutenant Servius Galba attempts to open up a secure trade route across the Alps. Only through instances of individual valor do the Romans retain the camp. His book Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War, often called The Conquest of Gaul), was a propaganda piece (written in 53 BCE) justifying his military and political actions during a nine year campaign in Gaul (and a short jaunt into Britain). Leipzig: Teubner, 1968. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. Nice) suspends the narrative indefinitely on the brink of civil war. Category: Text: EBook-No. When it came to his political affiliations, Caesar was a member of the Populares, a demagogu… Tribunes could veto Senate laws, and the election and actions of magistrates. Exeter: Exeter University Press, 1985. A. Wiseman and P. Wiseman. A third view argues that the books were produced and published at stages during the campaign, probably yearly. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. In light of a reported conspiracy by the Belgae, a group of tribes in North-eastern Gaul, Caesar raises two new legions and marches on their territory. A, Wiseman and P. Wiseman). It is perhaps no wonder that just two years later his Roman troops were ready to follow him to the bitterest of encounters—civil war. Caesar arrives, resplendent in the scarlet cloak of a general (Gallic War, 7.88), and ends the resistance of the Gallic tribes. The Battle for Gaul [Commentaries on the Gallic War]. The leading rebel, Vercingetorix, submits nobly to Caesar. 1. A History of Rome. At the river Allia, on July 18, probably in 390 bce, a notorious “black” day (dies nefastus) in the Roman calendar, the Senones inflicted a crushing defeat on Rome’s legions and then sacked the city of Rome, destroying houses, temples, and public records. To advance his ambitions, he joined forces with Pompey and Crassus in an unofficial political alliance known as “The First Triumvirate,” a pact that foreshadowed the end of the Republic. The book ends laconically: “After this deed Caesar found Gaul somewhat quieter” (Commentarii rerum gestarum, 5.58; trans. Working closely with the army, tribunes, and the people, Marius’s military successes in Numidia resulted in his election in absentia for the consulship of the Republic in 104 bce. Subject: Rome -- History -- Civil War, 49-48 B.C. As with Caesar’s exaggerated claims, it is not true. _____The Conquest of Gaul [Commentaries on the Gallic War] Trans. The climax of the work is the siege of Alesia. In a remarkable speech, he shames the remainder of the army into action. Brutus. Cambridge, Mass. After amassing fresh troops to counter the threat of war, Caesar finds him-self occupied in the North, again in Menapian territory. NOOK Book (eBook) $ 0.95. Thereafter, he occupied a series of political offices: military tribune in 72 bce, quaestor in Spain in 69 bce, aedile in 65 bce. Original Latin title: "Commentarii de Bello Gallico", sometimes abbreviated as "Bell. 16 Oct. 2020 . See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive, Uploaded by Undoubtedly Caesar’s skill as an orator was a powerful factor in his election in 63 bce to pontifex maximus, head of the college of pontiffs. Gaius Julius Caesar Commentaries on the Gallic War translated by W.A. The ring-leader, Acco, is flogged to death in accordance with Roman custom, and Caesar heads back to Italy. Gall." Within the Republic, ancient eulogies and funerary inscriptions testify to a preoccupation among the oligarchy with magistracies and priest-hoods, public building works, military successes, and, above all, contests to prove themselves “first,” “best,” or “greatest.” The citizens of ancient Rome competed fiercely to gain access to the Senate, to ascend the cursus honorum (”ladder of honors”), and to become consul. Haphaestus At the time, Sulla earned the dubious distinction of being the first Roman citizen to march an army on the city of Rome. When they join forces with Vercingetorix, he turns to the Germanic peoples for aid. Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War. He crosses the river Axona (now called Aisne) to aid the town of Bibrax. Julius Caesar wrote in compelling and no non-sense pros. And, as an aid to his readers, he provides expository information for those who are unfamiliar with the far-off lands and people encountered during his forays. A small group of powerful senators, however, continued to provoke a rift. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Nice). In Roman politics, alliances were always unstable because of external pressures and wavering ambitions, and this three-way coalition was no different. His platform rested on the inability of nobles in the Senate to find either a diplomatic or military solution to the conflict in Numidia. And life is not easy for the Roman legionaries who garrison the fortified camps of Totorum, Aquarium, Laudanum and Compendium …. Make amends to the Romans by killing me or surrender me alive as you think best.”, (Gallic War, 7.89; trans. Trans. Not only is the student presented with the com-plete text of over five (of the seven Caesarian) books of the Gallic War, but he or she also encounters a Among the Gallic peoples, Vercingetorix is the Gallic equivalent of Caesar: a capable orator, strategist, and warrior. In 79 bce he won the Civic Crown (a military decoration of oak leaves woven into the shape of a crown) for saving the life of a Roman citizen, an indication of greater things to come. The Gallic War: Commentaries on the Gallic War with an Eighth Commentary. Rome annexed Nearer Gaul, but matters came to a head in the late second century bce, when two German tribes, the Cimbri and the Teutones, migrated there. At the river Sabis (now Sambre) the ferocity and courage of the Nervii tribe proves a worthy match for Caesar’s legions. Four times he recalls their annihilation of the Roman army of L. Cassius Longinus in 107 bce. A. Later on, in 68 bce Caesar was to win acclaim as the new champion of the populares when he proudly displayed images of Marius at his aunt’s funeral. His actions resulted eventually in the annexation of the Near East and an ingenious settlement that took ac-count of the complex geographical and political factors of the region. But the most obvious inspiration is the dictator Sulla’s lost Commentarii rerum gestarum, on his life and achievements. Events in History at the Time of the Commentaries. He takes care to mention individual officers, centurions, and even slaves. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. As time passed, generals and politicians recognized that by publishing their commentarii or res gestae they could justify their actions and promote themselves in Rome. The Romans launch simultaneous attacks against the restless northern peoples—the Menapii, Aduatuci, and the Treveri. Encyclopedia.com. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Beginnings of books are often marked off with threats to the peace of Gaul, which continue to justify Caesar’s presence in the territory. Quaestor Financial and administrative officials, the 20 quaestors at the time of the Gallic War maintained public records and oversaw the treasury. Later works include his dispatches to the Senate, letters to Cicero and others, two speeches against the Roman statesman Cato the Younger (95-46 bce), and the poem The Journey. Caesar wrote the commentaries on the Gallic War for two main reasons: 1) to put in writing the authoritative account of a very important period in Roman history 2) to justify to the Roman people his military actions in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. In the subsequent sections Caesar and his legates reduce the remnants of Gallic resistance. First they drive in all directions hurling spears. Later, as tribune of the people, he passed a measure limiting the influence of the nobility at elections. The forces of the Eburones and Nervii disperse. None understood this more than Caesar’s uncle, Gaius Marius. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting … Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1957. Track Page Views WithAuctiva's FREE Counter Book 8 was written by Aulus Hirtius, after Caesar's death. Doing battle, his Roman fleet proves itself superior to the enemy in oarsmanship, speed, and tactics. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. When they threaten two Gallic tribes—the Aedui and Allobroges—that are Roman allies, Caesar pursues the Helvetii to the town of Bibracte, where his troops defeat them. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. At the age of 25, Pompey joined Sulla and campaigned in Italy, Sicily, and Africa, then refused to disband his army unless he was granted a triumph (a celebratory procession that wound its way through the streets of Rome to the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill). The influence of Marius cannot be overestimated, either on Roman politics in the first century bce or on the young Caesar. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also simply Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. In 102 and 101 bce, under the command of Marius, the Romans defeated first the Teutones and then the Cimbri. Pompey was granted special authority to deal with the crisis. In the centuries that followed, Celtic tribes continued to encroach on Italian territory and to offer aid to Rome’s enemies. "De Bello Gallico" and Other Commentaries Contents: The war in Gaul -- The civil war. Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter. As a young man, Julius Caesar served briefly in Asia between 80 and 78 bce before returning to Rome to make a name for himself in the law courts. Routing the enemy, he presses forward into the territory of other Belgic peoples. The ideal form focused on the doubtful and varying fortunes of an outstanding individual and would contain contrasting emotions of surprise and suspense, joy and distress, hope and fear. Finally, failing to engage the Suebi, Caesar returns to Gaul, leaving part of the Roman-built bridge standing as a warning to the Germans. . As a historical document, the Commentaries on the Gallic War remain enormously valuable as the memoir of a Roman commander in provinces of the empire. London: Routledge, 1996. Caesar’s response is savage. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. The highest offices, praetors and consuls, had the right to wage war, to punish citizens, and to impose the death penalty. He advances on the Bellovaci, who surrender themselves to the Romans. Wiseman, T. P., ed. “I did not undertake the war,” he said, “for private ends, but in the cause of national liberty. : Harvard University Press, 1962. As appropriate, Caesar metes out pardon or punishment. in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. And since I must now accept my fate, I place myself at your disposal. The narrator has obvious familiarity with the work hence rarely misspeaks or mispronounces names or terms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Now late in the summer, Caesar directs his attention toward Britain. The “mutiny” spreads and Caesar is compelled to call a council of war. With the help of the tribunes of the people, he distributed cheap grain to the poor and guaranteed land to his veteran troops. A. Situated in 50 bce, each book begins as follows: The year is 50 B.C. The excellence of Kelsey’s work is due to its rigor and completeness. It the violent anticlimax to more than a century of conflict between Rome…, Vercingetorix was a Roman general and politician who overthrew the Roman Republic and established the rule of the emperors. Election to the office of praetor followed. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. Their unlikely hero is a very small Gallic man named Asterix, who is accompanied by his faithful companion, an oversized man named Obelix, and his pet hound, Dogmatix. LibriVox recording of Commentaries on the Gallic War, by Gaius Julius Caesar. Cambridge, Mass. (Gallic War, 2.28; trans. They maintained the streets of Rome, regulated traffic and the city water supply, and were responsible for the upkeep of public buildings. The Commentaries on the Gallic War influenced writers and thinkers in Britain, France, and Germany. Caesar's Commentaries are an outstanding account of extraordinary events by one of the most exceptional men in the history of the world. In A History of Private Life. Although there have been a plethora of excellent TV and film adaptations of Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, there have been few that deal with the historical Caesar, Occasionally Caesar has been the subject of the historical novel, most notably in the recent works of Colleen McCullough, Allen Massie, or Steven Saylor but none have achieved anything similar to the phenomenal success of the comic book series created by René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo. new Roman province and to encourage another Germanic group, the Ubii, to resist the Sheba. In Rome, the people celebrated. To make matters worse, there was open gang warfare between their supporters in the streets of Rome, which pre-vented elections being held for 52 bce. Caesar also recovers the loyalty of the Aedui and of the Arverni, stations Roman officials and troops throughout Gaul, and personally winters at Bibracte. Once there, he sends his men against the Morin and Kenai, who have renewed hostilities. A cohort numbers about 360 men and there are ten cohorts to a legion; in the Gallic War a legion totaled about 3,600 men. They justify his conquests by encouraging the reader to draw comparisons between Roman ideals of nationhood and the ways of these foreign nations. The Roman winter camps are assaulted by the Gauls. He studied rhetoric and philosophy in Rhodes, after a brief delay en route when he was captured by pirates. The Gallic Wars has been divided into the following sections: Book 1 [106k] Book 2 [60k] Book 3 [53k] Book 4 [64k] Book 5 [98k] Book 6 [77k] Book 7 [153k] Book 8 [87k] Download: A 486k text-only version is … constitution when he had himself declared dictator for the purpose of rewriting the constitution. In the territory of the Eburones, Caesar sets up camp, appointing Cicero to guard the baggage. 53973 Commentaries on the Gallic War Julius Caesar and Aulus Hirtius W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. The year-by-year publication of the Gallic War was necessary to justify Caesar’s actions to his adoring public and to promote his calculated subjugation of areas outside Roman control. Despite a magnificent third triumph, the Senate’s refusal to ratify Pompey’s eastern settlement led him to seek support from equally ambitious nobles. The commentarius was a genre that had its origins in the Greek hypomemnata (or ‘memoranda’), such as public legal records and accounting expenses, or private notes for speeches and personal diaries. Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. They make their way through the squadrons of their own cavalry, then jump down from their chariots and fight on foot, Meanwhile the chariot-drivers withdraw a little way from the fighting and position the chariots in such a way that if their masters are hard pressed by the enemy’s numbers, they have an easy means of retreat to their own lines. There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. Vercingetorix was given over to Caesar. On hearing the news of it, their old men … sent envoys to Caesar and surrendered.... Caesar, wishing to let it be seen that he showed mercy to the unfortunate suppliants, took great care to protect them from harm, confirmed them in possession of their territories and towns, and commanded their neighbours to refrain from injuring their persons or property. They now intended for their works to be publicly disseminated. . Introduction takes up 9 minutes. His back is not long turned before the Veneti, a tribe of seafarers, reveal themselves to be unwilling subjects. A. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Men like Lepidus or Catiline, thwarted in their attempts to gain power or to pass social legislation, raised armies against the state in 78 and 63 bce respectively. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Uderzo, Albert. This complete edition of Caesar's Commentaries contains all eight of Caesar's books on the Gallic War as well as all three of his books on the Civil War masterfully translated into English by W. A. MacDevitt. In his youth he composed the poem Praises of Hercules, a tragedy called Oedipus, and a collection of sayings (apophthegms). Trans. At the end of the year the triumvirs conspired to award Caesar a five-year governorship of some Roman provinces in Europe—Illyricum and Nearer Gaul (or Cisalpine Gaul, Gaul on this side of the Alps). For the first time the Roman army no longer owed allegiance to the state but to the general who could provide for them. ), known as Cato the Elder and Cato the Censor, was a Roman soldier, statesman, orator…, Commerce Department Intelligence and Security Responsibilities, United States, Commercial Production: Interaction Among Peoples, Commercial Production: Methods of Exchange, Commercial Production: Occupations and Work Habits, https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/culture-magazines/commentaries-gallic-war, The Rise of Rome (3rd century bce to 2nd century ce, Communication, Transportation, and Exploration: Overview, Divide and Rule: The Legacy of Roman Imperialism. a German chieftain named Ariovistus (chapters 30-59). ... Gallic War Book I Book II Book III Book IV Book V Book VI Book VII Book VIII. Reports of incursions by two Germanic peoples (the Harudes and the Suebi) inspire Caesar to march north to prevent Ariovistus from capturing a major town of Gaul—Vesontio. The insurrecti…, Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.) The Gallic Wars has been divided into the following sections: Book 1 [106k] Book 2 [60k] Book 3 [53k] Book 4 [64k] Book 5 [98k] Book 6 [77k] Book 7 [153k] Book 8 [87k] Download: A 486k text-only version is … All of this was enhanced by Caesar’s own reports to the Senate and his Commentaries on the Gallic War, which kept the Roman people abreast of his latest conquests. O. Seel. Cicero’s band, foraging away from the camp, is caught off guard. This gave some relief to the Romans, ever mindful that the Gauls had once sacked Rome. Citizens often returned home to find their land allotments in ruin. Caesar’s fearless style of generalship, marked by his famed celeritas (speed) was as impressive as his oratory. In this passage, Caesar, who tended to avoid “the unusual word as a sailor avoids a rock,” captures their novelty by his introduction of the nouns essedum (”chariot”) and essadarius (“charioteer”) into the Latin language. They are ironic in view of the tumultuous events then happening in Rome (Caesar notes that he had learned of the murder of a leading Roman political figure, Clodius [Gallic War, 7.1]), and the events about to unfold in Gaul itself. Sulla subsequently tried to shore up the power of the optimates (those who believed in the traditional authority of the Senate) and to prevent popular agitation by muzzling the tribunes of the people. In 50 bce, the question of a successor In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. In 78 bce Pompey marched against Lepidus and in 77 bce demanded the power of proconsul to fight in Spain against the rebellious general Sertorius. Suetonius. Language: English: LoC Class: PA: Language and Literatures: Classical Languages and Literature: Subject: Gaul -- History -- Gallic Wars, 58-51 B.C. Asinius Pollio, who had fought with Caesar, thought they had been composed carelessly and with too little regard to the truth. Caesar draws attention to the significance of the victory and takes the opportunity to display his famous dementia (clemency): So ended this battle, by which the tribe of the Nervii was almost annihilated and their name almost blotted out from the face of the earth. After he was elected consul, Marius promptly en-rolled in his army numbers of the urban proletariat, the capite censi, those without the necessary property qualification. Their complex systems of patronage and factional alliances allowed them to influence public assemblies, fix elections, and control access to the magistracies (political offices). 1.25 circumvenere: we follow Seel and others in reading circumvenire The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. This site contains Latin text, notes, vocabulary, and media for selections from The Gallic War by Julius Caesar, intended for readers of Latin.. A note on the text. Annual reports by Julius Caesar of his campaigns in Gaul and Britain between 58 and 52 bce, published in Latin in the 50s bce, plus a supplement for 51 and 50 bce by Caesar’s genera! No doubt you’ve heard Winston Churchill’s famous quote that “History is written by the victors,” as was the case with the Gallic Wars. Caesar’s men defend their nation with discipline, hard work, and traditional virtue. He also showed himself to be a rising star in the Roman law courts. In 108 bce Marius campaigned for the consulship of 107 bce. The subject matter provided raw material for Livy’s From the Founding of the City, for Plutarch’s Parallel Lives, and for Suetonius’ The Lives of The Twelve Caesars (all also in Classical Literature and Its Times). The Nervii then besiege the camp of Quintus Cicero. However, the date of retrieval is often important. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting … It was even harder for the lower classes and equestrians (businessmen with property worth at least 400,000 sesterces—Roman coins) who had neither the necessary dignitas nor auctoritas, although from time to time the nobles were willing to concede the consulship to a new man, or novus homo, who showed promise. There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. But his measures were short-lived as the actions of certain nobles undermined his constitutional reforms. By the time of the Gallic War, Rome had decreed that a ten-year interval was necessary between the holdings of the same office. An interest in grammar and style resulted in On Analogy, a lost work in which Caesar advocated the lucid, pristine style used in his two surviving historical works: Commentaries on the Gallic War and Commentaries on the Civil War. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869. The resultant urban problems led to genuine attempts at political and social reforms (in 133 and 123-122 bce), aimed at relieving the plight of Rome’s poorer classes. In addition, the narrator's voice is a perfect match for conveying Caesar's writings. There are no accounts of the looting of the Gallic sanctuaries, which … Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Encircling the ramparts of the enemy, the forces of Gaul are successively beaten back. Eventually the Romans launch a counterattack, their cavalry pursuing and beheading the Treveri leader, Indutiomarus. Although the Gauls have some degree of a social class structure, they fight one another and the Germans. For example, Caesar claims that the Helvetii threaten the Roman province and promote anti-Roman sentiment. Ingenious storylines paint a caricatured portrait of overbearing and stuffy Romans and of boorish and guileless Gauls. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Celtic and Germanic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. Caesar’s work ends on the positive and self-congratulatory note: “When these messages were made known at Rome a public thanks-giving of twenty days was granted” (Gallic War, 7.90; trans. Cassivellaunus promises hostages and a yearly tribute, after which Caesar returns to Gaul and settles his troops in winter quarters. Cross-references to this page (11): Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, SYNTAX OF THE VERB. As one historian remarks, “The Senate was a club, and club members decided whether or not a man had the social profile necessary for membership, whether or not he could add to the prestige of the group” (Veyne, p. 95). A request that Caesar’s command in Gaul be extended from 51 through 49 bce was rejected. The coalition was cemented by the marriage of Pompey to Caesar’s daughter, Julia. The standard position is that Caesar’s Commentaries on the Gallic War were a synthesis of his earlier campaign reports, and that he wrote and published them after the successful completion of business in Gaul in 52-51 bce. At Rome the form developed in the writings of the priestly colleges or of the leading magistrates, in senatorial dispatches and reports, and in the diaries of army generals and provincial governors. The two works arise out of a chaotic period of self-styled military rulers, growing corruption of governmental processes, gang warfare, and civil war. Mommsen, Theodor. Julius Caesar himself was one. The peace of just a few weeks earlier is shattered by an unexpected onslaught on Galba’s camp. On January 10 and 11 of 49 bce, Caesar, his dignitas irreparably slighted, crossed the Rubicon, a stream separating Gaul from Italy. London: HarperCollins, 1995. S. A. Handford). In the years that followed Marius’s victory, the inhabitants of Farther Gaul were heavily taxed and closely monitored. Thus when they fight they have the mobility for cavalry and the staying power of infantry; and with daily training and practice they have become so efficient that even on steep slopes they can control their horses at full gallop, check and turn them in a moment, run along the pole, stand on the yoke and get back into the chariot with incredible speed, (Gallic War 433; trans. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Often he appears suddenly and dramatically: to save the Seventh Legion in Britain, to rescue Quintus Cicero, at the forefront of the battle, robed in his general’s red cloak at the siege of Alesia. When this attack fails, the Britons sue for peace. Clad in the bloodred cloak he usually wore “as his distinguishing mark of battle,” Caesar led his troops to victories throughout the province, his major triumph being the defeat of the Gallic army led by Unnerved by the unusual spectacle of charioteers in Britain and by the British weather, the Romans survive an ambush and an attack on their camp. Caesar grew up during the bloody struggle between Sulla and Marius in the 80s bce. Generally, though, Caesar sets up a framework of Roman versus barbarian, portraying the region as a threat to the survival of Roman civilization itself. There he receives the surrender of the Trinobantes and other tribes and attacks the stronghold of Cassivellaunus. Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Seven “books,” which are in fact parts of a single book, make up Commentaries on the Gallic War. The Latin text given here generally conforms with the Oxford Classical Text of 1900 by Renatus DuPontet, except for the following:. The tide is turned by the arrival of Rome’s Tenth Legion and the Romans are victorious. to Caesar became a pressing issue. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, AG BG 3.23. With winter approaching, Caesar plunders territory of two Belgic peoples in the North—the Morini and the Menapii. Cassivellaunus attempts to divert Caesar’s attention by urging tribes in Kent to at-tack Caesar’s naval camp. His brief speech to his own people is a moving demonstration of self-sacrifice: The next day Vercingetorix addressed an assembly. R. Graves. For a modern audience the enduring reputation of Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 bce) is owed partly to his infamous portrayal in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar and partly to his political and military domination of the Roman world during the 50s and 40s bce. Asterix and the Secret Weapon. The destruction of Carthage in 146 bce ended the Third Punic War (149–146). Trans. Main writing starts at 10:03 mark. London: Orion, 2002. Each office bestowed a certain amount of potestas (political authority) or imperium (military authority). In the last century or so of Republican life in Rome, “it mattered who was first and who was second” (Wiseman, p. 7). It is perhaps an appropriate, if less than satisfying, conclusion. When his slave brings word to Caesar, Caesar advances swiftly to break the blockade of Cicero’s camp. Cicero, the foremost rhetorician of the era, wrote in 46 bce: “They [the Commentaries] are greatly to be approved. His troops’ first action is against the Helvetii (chapters 2-29), who have been inspired by their chieftain Orgetorix to migrate from their homeland (in modern-day Switzerland) to Gaul through Roman territory. Though the Britons keep bothering his men on the march, Caesar eventually reaches the Thames. Leaving his lieutenant Titus Labienus in winter quarters among the Sequani, Caesar returns to Nearer Gaul to conduct the administrative duties of a governor.
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